The Effect of CO2 Emissions, Energy Consumption, Coal Consumption on Gross Domestic Product per Capita in Indonesia

Wahyu Aji Wijaya


Energy consumption in driving the industrialization of the economy in its development must be accompanied by regulatory policies that support so that this energy can be used efficiently. This study aims to determine the effect of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and coal use on per capita economic growth in Indonesia. Secondary data used are time series sourced from the World Bank, the Central Bureau of Statistics, and related agencies during the period 1985 to 2019. The analytical tool used in this study is multiple linear regression based on Ordinary Least Square (OLS) along with statistical tests and Classical Assumption Test. The estimation results conducted show that the CO2 emission variable has a significant effect and has a positive relationship to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in Indonesia and the variables of coal consumption and energy consumption have a negative correlation to GDP per capita and seen from the probability value of the variable coal consumption statistically does not have a significant effect on GDP per capita in Indonesia.

Full Text:



Aprilia, F., Sasana, H., Destiningsih, R., Ekonomi, F., & Tidar, U. (2018). INDONESIA ANALYSIS OF COAL CONSUMPTION DRIVING FACTORS IN INDONESIA Batubara Indonesia yang digunakan untuk kepentingan permintaan energi primer pada tahun 2016 masih Review of World Energy melaporkan konsumsi. 2, 244–258.

Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) diakses dari, diakses pada tanggal 28 April 2021 pada jam 10.20 WIB

Bashir, A., Husni Thamrin, K. M., Farhan, M., Mukhlis, & Atiyatna, D. P. (2019). The causality between human capital, energy consumption, CO 2 emissions, and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Indonesia. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 9(2), 98–104.

Bowo. P. A. 2012. The Relationship Of Environmental Quality And Economic Growth, 201–206.

Brendt, Ernst R. and David O. Wood. 1975. Technology, Prices, and Te Derived Demand for Energy. The Review Economics and Statistic, Vol. 57, No. 3.

Budiarto, H., M. a., & pramudia, m. (2013). Perbaikan Kualitas Permukaan Baja JIS S45C. Jurnal ilmiah mikrotek.

Carfora, A., Pansini, R. V., & Scandurra, G. (2019). The causal relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth in Asian developing countries: A replication. Energy Strategy Reviews, 23(October 2018), 81–85.

Foon, C., Wah, B., & Ozturk, I. 2016. Energy consumption and economic growth in Vietnam. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54, 1506-1514.

Humbatova, S. I., Ahmadov, F. S., Seyfullayev, I. Z., & Hajiyev, N. G. O. (2020). The relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth: Evidence from Azerbaijan. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 10(1), 436–455.

Jacques, L., & Keho, Y. 2016. Energy consumption, economic growth and carbon emissions: Cointegration and causality evidence from selected African countries. Energy, 114, 492-497

Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral. (2014). Ketahanan Energi Indonesia 2014. Jakarta: Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral.

Li, J. dan Li, Z. (2011) “A causality analysis of coal consumption and economic growth for China and India,” Natural Resources, 02(01), hal. 54–60. doi: 10.4236/nr.2011.21007.

Mankiw, N.Gregory. 2007. Makroekonomi, Edisi Keenam. Jakarta : Erlangga

Ozturk, Ilhan dan Acaravci A. 2013. “The Long Run and Causal Analysis of Energy, Growth, Openness, and Financial Development on Carbon Emissionsin Turkey. Journal of Energy Economics 36 (2013): 262-267.

Stern, David. 2003. Energy and Economics Growth. Encyclopedia of Energy, Volume 2. Elsavier Inc.

Streimikiene, D. and Rafal. K. 2016. Review of economic growth and energy consumption: A panel cointegration analysis for EU countries, 59, 1545-1549.

Tverberg, Gail. 2011. Energy Policies and Oil Supply.

Yusgiantoro, Purnomo. 2000. Ekonomi Energi: Teori dan Praktik. Jakarta: LP3ES

Verhoef, E.T. 1999. Externalities, dalam Jeroen C.J.M Van Den Bergh (ed), Handbook of Environmental Economics and Management,24:101–118.

Wang, S., Li, Q., Fang, C., & Zhou, C. 2016. Science of the Total Environment The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China. Science of the Total Environment, The, 542, 360–371.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.